Virginia, United States

Virginia, United States

Country USA
Capital city Richmond
Area 110,785.67 km²
Population 8,654,542 people (2020)
78.1 people/km²
Governor Terry McAuliffe
Time zone UTC -5/ -4
ZIP code VA
ISO 3166-2 US-VA
Official site virginia.gov/ www. virginia.gov
Virginia

Virginia (in English: Virginia; officially – Commonwealth of Virginia, in English: Commonwealth of Virginia), is a state in the United States of America, located in the South Atlantic region of the United States.

The state zip code is VA. Virginia is nicknamed the Old Dominion because of its status as a former dominion of the English crown . Another nickname that is also used is the Mother of the Presidents, because most of the US presidents were born in the state.

British Virginia’s geography and climate are defined by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for diverse flora and fauna. The capital of Virginia is Richmond. Virginia Beach is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision.

Virginia has a total area of ​​110,786 km², of which 102,384 km² is land and 8,288 km² is water (7.49%). The coastline of the state is quite dissected. This is where the Chesapeake Bay is located. It has a varied relief. To the east is the Coastal Plain, and to the west – the Appalachians with their Piedmont foothills. Mild and humid climate. Main river – Potomac.

The territory of the state was inhabited by several indigenous groups, mainly Indian tribes of the Powhatan Confederacy. In 1607, the London Company founded the colony of Virginia as the first English colony in the New World. Slave labor and land were acquired from displaced Native American tribes, each of which played an important role in early colonial politics and economics. Virginia was one of the 13 colonies of the American Revolution and joined the Confederacy in the American Civil War. During the American Civil War, Richmond was established as the capital of the Confederacy. The northwestern counties of Virginia that seceded formed the state of West Virginia. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century during the Reconstruction period (1865–1877), two major national parties compete today in modern Virginia.

The Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuously operating legislature in the New World . State leadership has been repeatedly ranked as the most effective by the Pew Research Center of the United States . It is unique in the way it treats cities and counties equally, governs local roads, and prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia’s economy has many sectors, such as agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley, federal agencies in northern Virginia, including the headquarters of the Department of Defense and the CIA, and military installations in Hampton Roads., the site of the main port area. The mining (coal, zinc, lead, construction materials, etc.), tobacco, textile, food, shipbuilding industries are developed. Virginia’s economy in the period 1960-1970 transitioned from agricultural to industrial. In 2002, the state of Virginia became the leader in exporting computer chips abroad.

The largest city is Virginia Beach, other large cities are Norfolk, Chesapeake, Arlington, Richmond, Newport News, Alexandria, Hampton, Roanoke.

Geography

Virginia is located between the Chesapeake Bay to the east and the Blue Ridge Mountains to the west. To the south, the boundary runs along a parallel of 36° 30′ north latitude

Virginia has a total area of ​​110,784.7 km², including 8,236.5 km² of water, making it the 35th largest state . The state of Virginia is bordered to the northeast by the state of Maryland and Washington, DC; to the east with the Atlantic Ocean; on the south by the states of North Carolina and Tennessee; on the west by the state of Kentucky; to the northwest with the state of West Virginia. Virginia’s state border with Maryland and Washington extends to low tide on the south bank of the Potomac River . The southern limit is fixed at 36° 30′ north parallel, although geodetic error has resulted in deviations of three minutes of arc. The Tennessee state line had not been determined until 1893 when their dispute went to the US Supreme Court.

Geology

The Chesapeake Bay divides the adjacent part of the peninsula into two counties on the east coast of the state of Virginia. The bay is formed by the tributaries of the Susquehanna River and the James River . Many of Virginia’s rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock, York, and James rivers, which create three peninsulas in the bay .

Tidewater is the coastal plain between the coast of the Atlantic Ocean and the so-called Atlantic Seaboard fall line. It includes the east coast and the great estuaries of the Chesapeake Bay. The foot of the mountain consists of sedimentary and igneous rocks – based foothills to the east of the mountains that were formed in the Mesozoic era. The area, which is known for its heavy clay soil, includes the southwest mountains around Charlottesville. The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physical geographic part of the Appalachian mountain range with the highest points in the United States, such as Mount Rogers – 1,746 m . The Blue Ridge and Valley lies to the west of the mountains and includes the Great Appalachian Mountain Range and the Valley. The area is of carbonate rock and includes the Massanutten mountain range . The Cumberland Plateau and Cumberland Range are located in the southwestern tip of the state of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this area, the rivers originate from the northwest, with the dendritic drainage system, in the Ohio River basin .

There are more than 4,000 caves in the state of Virginia, ten of which are open for tourism .

The state of Virginia is located in a seismic zone that has not had regular seismic activity recently. Earthquakes above magnitude 4.5 are rare because the state is located far from the edges of the North American tectonic plate. In 1897, the largest earthquake occurred near Blacksburg, with a magnitude of 5.9 . On August 23, 2011, an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.8 struck the central part of the state, near the town of Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far as Toronto (Canada), Atlanta (Georgia) and Florida.

Coal mining is carried out in three mountain areas in 45 separate coal beds near the Mesozoic basins . In 2013, over 61.9 million tons of other resources (other than fuels), such as shale, kyanite, sand, or gravel, were mined in the state of Virginia.

Climate

Virginia’s climate becomes warmer and wetter as one goes south and east . Seasonal temperatures in the month of January vary from average minimum values ​​of -3 °C to average maximum values ​​in the month of July – 30 °C. The Atlantic Ocean has a strong impact on the eastern and southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, the coast is subject to hurricanes, most prominently near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay .

Virginia has an annual average of 35–45 thunderstorm days, particularly in the western part of the state, and an average annual rainfall of 4.5 inches . Cold air masses over the mountains in winter lead to significant snowfall, such as the blizzard of 1996 and the winter storms of 2009 and 2010. The interaction of these phenomena creates a distinct microclimate in the Shenandoah Valley, Mountain Southwest, and Coastal Plains . Virginia averages seven tornadoes per year, with most being Category 2 on the Fujita scale or weaker.

In recent years, the expansion of Washington ‘s southern suburbs into northern Virginia has created an “urban heat island”, which is mainly due to increased absorption of solar radiation in more densely populated areas . According to a 2011 report by the American Lung Association, 11 counties were found to have poor air quality due to vehicular pollution, with Fairfax County performing worst . Coal-fired power plants are also partly responsible for the fog .

Flora and Fauna

Forests cover 65% of the state, mostly deciduous trees. Lower elevations are more likely to have small but dense stands of moisture-loving firs and mosses in abundance, with walnut and oak in the Blue Ridge . However, since the early 1990s, an invasion of fungus gnats (Lymantria dispar) has eroded the dominance of oak forests . The Tidewater Plains, as well as the Great Dismal and Nottoway Marshes, are dominated by yellow pines, bald cypresses, and wet forests.. Other common trees and plants are chestnut, sycamore, tulip, poplar, American laurel, milkweed, daisies, and many types of ferns. The largest areas of wilderness are along the Atlantic coast and in the western mountains, where the largest variety of lilies and wildflowers in North America is found . Areas along the Atlantic coast host flora and pine forests that are more common in the southern Atlantic.

The following mammal species live in the state of Virginia: white-tailed deer, black bear, beaver, feral cat, coyote, raccoon, skunk, marmot, Virginia opossum, gray fox, red fox, Sylvilagus floridanus, nutria, fox squirrel, gray squirrel, flying squirrel, North American squirrel, brown bat and weasel. Birds include cardinals, tawny owl, Carolina tit, red-tailed hawk, osprey, brown pelican, quail, gull, bald eagle, and wild turkey. The state of Virginia is home to both Greater and Lesser Woodpeckers, as well as the Common Woodpecker. In the mid-1990s, a peregrine falcon was transported to Shenandoah National Park . Silver salmon, grayling, Rohnock cod, and American freshwater catfish also live in the state of Virginia., which are among the 210 known species of freshwater fish . Rocky rivers are often inhabited by abundant crustaceans and salamanders . The Chesapeake Bay hosts many species, including blue crabs, clams, oysters, and sea bass (also known as striped bass) .

The state of Virginia has 30 national park systems, such as Great Falls National Park, the Appalachian Trail, and Shenandoah National Park. Shenandoah Park was established in 1945 and spans the scenic Skyline Drive. Almost 40% of the park’s area (322 km²) is designated as wildlife under the National Wildlife Conservation System. Additionally, there are 34 Virginia parks and 17 state forests managed by the Department of Environmental Conservation and the Department of Forestry . The Chesapeake Bay is not a national park, but it is protected and managed jointly by two state and 1 federal district. A national program is underway in the Chesapeake to restore the bay and its watershed. The Great Dismal Swamp National Preserve extends into the state of North Carolina, continuing as the Back Bay National Preserve, marking the beginning of the Outer Banks.

Demographic statistics

The population of the state of Virginia at the end of 2013 was 8,260,405, representing 2.6% of the US population. By population, Virginia ranks 12th after the state of New Jersey (8,899,339 people – 2013) and ahead of the state of Washington (6,971,406 people – 2013) .

Population according to censuses

In the period between the two censuses (2000-2010), the population of the state of Virginia increased by 922,509 people or by 13%.

As of April 1, 2010, the number of persons under the age of 18 in the state of Virginia was 1,853,677, or 23.2% of the population. The age group from 35 to 49 years of age has a relative share of 21.6%, or has a population of 1,730,083 people. The age group from 50 to 64 years of age follows with a relative share of 19.3% (1,547,809 people), from 25 to 34 years of age – 13.6% (1,090,419 people) .

The share of the population aged 65 and over is increasing – from 11.2% in 2000 to 12.2% in 2010.

The population in the age group of 85 and over is 122,403 people, or their relative share is 1.5% of the total population, and compared to 2000, their number has increased by 0.3 percentage points.

Ethnicities and races

The most numerous ethnic community in the state of Virginia according to the most recent census in 2010 is non-Hispanic white, making up 92.1% (7,369,199 people) of the total population. Hispanics or Latin Americans are the second largest ethnic community, with their relative share being 7.9% (631,825 people).

The largest relative share by type of race is white, which is 68.6% (5,486,582 people) of the total population. Followed by the number of the African-American race – 19.4% (1,551,339 people), the Asian race – 5.5% (439,890 people) and other races (Native Americans, and Alaska Natives, Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders) – 6, 5% (522,883 people).

Administrative division

Virginia consists of 38 independent cities and 95 counties .

Independent cities

  1. Alexandria
  2. Bristol
  3. Buena Vista
  4. Virginia Beach
  5. Galaxy
  6. Danville
  7. Emporia
  8. Covington
  9. Colonial Heights
  10. Lexington
  11. Lynchburg
  12. Martinsville
  13. Menace
  14. Menace Park
  15. Norton
  16. Norfolk
  17. Newport News
  18. Petersburg
  19. Pokulson
  20. Portsmouth
  21. Pulaski
  22. Richmond
  23. Roanoke
  24. Salem
  25. Stanton
  26. Suffolk
  27. Waynesboro
  28. Williamsburg
  29. Winchester
  30. Fairfax
  31. Falchurch
  32. Franklin
  33. Fredericksburg
  34. Harrisonburg
  35. Hampton
  36. Hopewell
  37. Chesapeake
  38. Charlottesville

Counties

  1. Isle of Wight
  2. Accomack
  3. Albemarle
  4. Allegheny
  5. Amelia
  6. Amherst
  7. Appomattox
  8. Arlington
  9. Bath
  10. Bedford
  11. Bland
  12. The bot
  13. Bristol
  14. Brunswick
  15. Buckingham
  16. Buchanan
  17. Washington
  18. Gloucester
  19. Grayson
  20. Green
  21. Greensville
  22. Goochland
  23. James City
  24. Giles
  25. Dickinson
  26. Dinwiddie
  27. Essex
  28. York
  29. Caroline
  30. Campbell
  31. Carol
  32. Clark
  33. King and Queens
  34. King George
  35. King William
  36. Craig
  37. Culpeper
  38. Cumberland
  39. Lancaster
  40. Loudon
  41. Lee
  42. Louisa
  43. Lunenburg
  44. Matthews
  45. Madison
  46. Mecklenburg
  47. Middlesex
  48. Montgomery
  49. Nelson
  50. Northampton
  51. Northumberland
  52. Nottoway
  53. New Kent
  54. Thick
  55. Orange
  56. Patrick
  57. Pouhatan
  58. Paige
  59. Pittsylvania
  60. Prince George
  61. Prince Edward
  62. Prince William
  63. Pulaski
  64. Rappahannock
  65. Richmond
  66. Roanoke
  67. Rockingham
  68. Russell
  69. Southampton
  70. Scott
  71. Smith
  72. Spotlights
  73. Stafford
  74. Surrey
  75. Sussex
  76. Tazewell
  77. Wise
  78. Westmoreland
  79. Wit
  80. Warren
  81. Charles City
  82. Fairfax
  83. Floyd
  84. Fluvana
  85. Fauquier
  86. Franklin
  87. Frederick
  88. Highland
  89. Halifax
  90. Hanover
  91. Henrico
  92. Henry
  93. Chesterfield
  94. Shenandoah
  95. The Charlotte

Cities

  • Alexandria
  • Appomattox
  • Ashburn
  • Blackstone
  • Bull Run
  • Burkeville
  • Virginia Beach
  • Dale City
  • Dumfries
  • Crew
  • Lynchburg
  • Norfolk
  • Newport News
  • Richmond
  • Roanoke
  • Sterling
  • Williamsburg
  • Winchester
  • Fairfax
  • Hampton
  • Harrisonburg
  • Chesapeake
  • Charlottesville

Towns

  • Blacksburg
  • Yorktown
  • Jamestown

Richmond

Country USA
State Virginia
Area 162 km²
Highness height 45 m
Population 220,289 people (2015)
1,360 people/km²
Founding 1742
Telephone code 804
Official site www.rva.gov
Richmond

Richmond (in English: Richmond) is a city in the United States of America, the capital of the state of Virginia.

Geography

It is located on the James River, 100 km above its confluence with the Atlantic Ocean. Its population is about 204,214 people (2010).

History

The city was the site of several battles during the American Revolutionary War and the American Civil War, during which it was the capital of the Confederate States of America.

Personalities

Born in Richmond

  • Warren Beatty (b. 1937), actor and director
  • Mickie James (b.1979), female wrestler

Died in Richmond

  • John Taylor (1790-1860), politician

Twin Cities

  • Windhoek, Namibia since March 20, 1998.

Virginia, United States

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