The rainfall and annual average temperatures recorded in one place for several years are registered in climogramas and inform the kind of climate of a region.
What is Climaogram
The climatogram is a graph that represents the average temperatures and the total rainfall that occurred in one place during the 12 months of the year. In the graph, temperatures are indicated with a line, and precipitation with bars. As the data are usually the averages of several years, the climaogram visually reveals the climate of that place.
How to make a climogram
To create a climaogram. firstly, meteorological data are needed .
Many official sources (national meteorological institutes) provide tables with this data. The two most important for each month of the year are: the average temperature in degrees centigrade and the amount of precipitation , totaled in millimeters or liters per square meter.
The data are presented using a coordinate system. Graph paper or graph paper should be used to trace the coordinate axis with two vertical axes.
- Draw the horizontal axis with the months of the year and allocate the same space for each one. Write the initials.
2.Make the vertical axis of the temperatures on the left. Divide the space proportionally.
3. Write the temperature numbers and indicate on the “Temperature in ° C” axis.
4. Draw the vertical axis of the precipitations on the right. Divide the space proportionally, but remember that rainfall always doubles the temperature. That is to say, at the height that indicates 10 ° C, it must be 20 mm.
5. Write down the rainfall numbers and note on the “Precipitations
6. ” Place a point at the same level as the average temperatures for each month.
7.Connect all points with a red line to obtain the temperature curve.
8. Mark the height of total rainfall and draw a blue bar for each month.
How to analyze a climaogram
The following steps should be considered when interpreting a climaogram:
- Observe general information: title and location, units of measurement, etc.
- Analyze the composition of the diagram.
Understand the variation of the average monthly temperatures, as well as the existence or absence of significant contrasts between the coldest and the hottest month (amplitude or thermal oscillation). All of this allows you to determine whether the climate is hot, temperate or cold. When the temperature curve is above precipitation, it means a dry month.
It is possible to know if the climate is humid by observing the values between which the monthly rainfall oscillates, as well as its distribution throughout the year (add the data of all months to know the annual rainfall). It should be noted whether the rainfall is distributed evenly throughout the year or whether it is concentrated in a few specific months.
- Identify the type of climate, that is, relate the thermopluviometric information to the Kõppen classification.
- Finally, make the comment itself, in which the climatic identification carried out is justified, the general characteristics of the place, the causes that cause this climate, the location of the type of climate and the biogeographical features (relationship with vegetation) are exposed.
In the example above, average temperatures are high throughout the year. In six months, they exceed 20 ° C. Therefore, there is a hot climate . There are few records of precipitation, therefore, among the types of hot climate, it is considered desert , since, in the sum of the rainfall of all months, the total is below 250 mm.
Earth’s Climate Zones
We know that on Earth there are areas where it is very hot and very cold. for example, in the poles it is very cold practically all year, in the regions close to the equator, the temperature in general is high every month of the year.
How do you explain this difference in temperature between these two regions?
You know that the heat we feel comes from the sun’s rays. In the equatorial areas, these rays reach the land more directly, that is, the slope of the sun’s rays. In the polar areas, on the other hand, they are quite inclined. That is why near the equator the temperature is high and near the poles it is low.
As a result of the greater warming that occurs in the equatorial region, and the lower warming in the region of the poles, the Earth’s surface has been divided into climatic zones or thermal zones.
There are five climatic zones on earth
– tropical or inter tropical zone: located between the tropics of cancer and the tropics of capricorn. It is the warmest region on earth.
– northern temperate zone: between the cancer tropics and the Arctic Circle. As they receive more inclined rays of the sun, they are less heated and illuminated. in these areas, it is easy to receive the passage of the four seasons, because there each season has the characteristics that clearly differentiate it from the others.
– southern temperate zone: between the capricorn tropic and the Antarctic polar circle.
– southern polar zone: covers areas located within the Antarctic polar circle.
– North polar zone: covers areas located within the Arctic Circle.
The polar zones are the coldest regions on the planet, these zones receive the sun’s rays very inclined and, therefore, very weak. Because of that they are very cold. for this reason, occurring in them and formation of large glaciers.
Most of the Brazilian territory is located in the tropical zone, which is why Brazil, in general, has high temperatures.
Good to know. The importance of the tropics and polar circles is due to the fact that they serve as limits for the so-called zone of the earth.