The first thing to know, before fully entering into the establishment of the Meaning of the term biomolecules, is its etymological origin. In this case, we can say that it is the result of the sum of two clearly delimited components:
-The Greek noun “bios”, which can be translated as “life”.
-The Latin word molecule. This is the result of the union of the name “moles”, which is equivalent to “mass”, and the Latin suffix “-culum”, which is used to indicate “tool or instrument”.
Biomolecules are known as those molecules that make up living organisms. A molecule, for its part, is the smallest unit of a substance that maintains its chemical properties.
The oxygen, the hydrogen, the carbon, the nitrogen, the sulfur and phosphorus are the bioelements (the chemical elements that need a living being to develop normally) most common of biomolecules. These chemical elements allow multiple and covalent bonds to be established, allow carbon atoms to develop three-dimensional skeletons, and give rise to multiple functional groups.
Other interesting facts about biomolecules are the following:
-They have their origin in the first half of the 20th century. And it was in 1922 when the Russian scientist Aleksandr I. Oparin released his theory about the origin of the world and also of the first biomolecules. It was a biologist and chemist who used his knowledge of geology and even astronomy to develop his hypothesis, which has been a basic pillar of science.
-If the degree of complexity of the structure of biomolecules is taken into account, there are four different types: metabolic intermediaries, macromolecules, precursors and structural units.
-Numerous are the functions that biomolecules have and that make them essential in human life. Thus, they can from allowing the correct functioning of the organs of that one as improving the defense of the organism going through getting it to have the necessary energy for the day to day.
Biomolecules can be divided into organic and inorganic. The organic biomolecules have a structure in which carbon – based and are synthesized by living organisms. The proteins, the vitamins, the carbohydrates, the lipids and nucleic acids are organic biomolecules.
The inorganic biomolecules, meanwhile, are present in the organisms alive and inert elements that are necessary for survival. The water (H2O) is an example of inorganic biomolecule.
Biomolecules that participate in essential life processes are called primary metabolites. Ribose, glucose, the B vitamins, and fructose are among the main primary metabolites.
The secondary metabolites, on the other hand, come from the biomolecules that are part of the primary metabolites, developing functions that complement the essential ones. Among them we can name the alkaloids, terpenes and polyketides. It can be said that the secondary metabolites are organic compounds that the body synthesizes and that are not fundamental in development and reproduction.