The ethanol is a fuel that is generated by the decomposition of organic waste anaerobic pathway. The bacteria are responsible for degrading these residues and to produce the element.
It is important to bear in mind that bioethanol has the same chemical composition as ethanol (also known as ethyl alcohol), therefore sharing all its characteristics. The difference is that, while bioethanol is generated from biomass processing, ethanol is obtained from other types of resources (such as ethylene found in naphtha or ethane in natural gas).
One of the key terms in this context is fermentation, an incomplete oxidation process that does not need oxygen and results in an organic compound. For example, it is correct to say that any alcoholic liquor obtained by fermenting the sugar of a plant must be classified as bioethanol.
As with other biofuels, bioethanol is often the subject of debate. Many point out that, unlike fossil fuels, bioethanol can be sustainable as it is produced from crops. In other words, it is a product that does not run out. Others, however, warn that obtaining bioethanol leads to an increase in the price of food since food crops are replaced by those that are needed for its production. The manufacture of bioethanol can also contribute to further deforestation.
An increase in bioethanol production will help to minimize dependence on oil. Bioethanol can be produced in any region of the world: only the land is needed for crops. With oil fields it is different because they are in specific places and can be depleted.
One of the reasons why the use of bioethanol as a fuel for automobiles is in full growth is that it goes hand in hand with the measures that governments take to control the emission of greenhouse gases. According to certain studies, the emissions generated by bioethanol from its production to its use are offset by those that occur throughout its development in the crop.
Despite the positive aspects of bioethanol, it is important to point out that at the moment it is not possible to remove fossil fuels from the market since with the methods currently used to produce it, it is necessary to use a much greater volume of energy than is currently available. gets.
Anaerobic fermentation, that is, without the presence of oxygen, is a process that humans have used since ancient times with sugars and yeast, briefly distilling them before placing them in an aqueous solution. One of the traditional applications has always been the production of alcoholic beverages.
Currently, many kinds of raw materials are used to produce bioethanol on a large scale, and depending on the plant used, certain properties of the fuel change, such as its performance. Let’s see a classification below:
* raw materials with a high sucrose content: sugar cane, sweets (candies, sugar-based foods), molasses, beets and sweet sorghum;
* raw materials with high concentrations of starch: potato, cassava and corn;
* raw materials with cellulose in high quantities: animal waste, agricultural industry residues (which includes citrus residues) and wood.
The complexity of the fermentation process varies according to the raw material used; for example, when starting with starch it is greater than with sucrose, and cellulose involves even greater complexity.