Since 1994 (on the one hand due to the wishes of most of the former Warsaw Pact states to join, on the other hand on the initiative of the then German Defense Minister V. Rühe) forced NATO eastward expansion, Russia saw its interests impaired in the “western fore” and feared the beginning of encirclement or isolation by NATO. From the perspective of the alliance, the problem of enlargement or opening to the east was to take into account the wishes of candidate countries without neglecting the interests of Russia and without establishing a new dividing line in Europe. The discrepancies between NATO and Russia were resolved on May 27, 1997 in Paris with the signing of the “Fundamental Act on Mutual Relations, Cooperation and Security between NATO and the Russian Federation”, so that Russia accepted new states into NATO tolerated. The Founding Act included Russia in the NATO security order, without weakening the alliance’s ability to function and act, without creating second-class memberships or making agreements at the expense of third parties; it reaffirmed the right to freely choose alliances and marked the beginning of a completely new relationship between the two partners with the Permanent Joint NATO-Russia Council founded in 1997, which, however, was suspended for almost a year in 1999 due to the NATO mission in Kosovo, which Russia rejected. It was afterwards through the planned US missile defense system However, due to the NATO mission in Kosovo rejected by Russia in 1999, it was dormant for almost a year. It was afterwards through the planned US missile defense system However, due to the NATO mission in Kosovo rejected by Russia in 1999, it was dormant for almost a year. It was afterwards through the planned US missile defense system NMD and the related termination of the ABM contract (ABM system) in December 2001 by the USA again burdened.
According to wholevehicles, relations between NATO and Russia were initially given a new dynamic after the terrorist attacks on the USA on September 11, 2001 and the ensuing fight against international terrorism. At the end of February 2002, the NATO Council agreed on a qualitatively new relationship with Russia in the future. On May 28, 2002, an agreement on the new “NATO-Russia Council” was signed at a NATO summit near Rome. This formalized equality between Russia and the NATO member states, without, however, impairing the function of the NATO Council or even granting Russia a veto right in NATO decisions. The cooperation should primarily encompass the following areas: the fight against terrorism, arms control issues and confidence-building measures, The non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, countermeasures against tactical missiles, measures within the framework of international crisis management, cooperation at the military level, disaster control and search and rescue measures on the high seas. The suspension of the CFE contract ( VKSE) in December 2007 by Russia and the Georgia conflict in 2008 worsened relations again. The dispute also arose because of the plans of the USA to set up radar and launch systems in Poland and the Czech Republic for a missile defense system to be stationed (directed against Iran).
At the NATO summit in Madrid on July 9, 1997, NATO and Ukraine signed the “Charter for a Distinctive Partnership” and agreed to work together on conflict prevention, disarmament and the control of arms exports. Within the framework of this partnership, inter alia agreed in February 2005 to support Ukraine in destroying around 133,000 tons of ammunition and around 1.5 million light weapons over a period of 12 years. Finally, in 1997 in Madrid, after some controversial discussions, the heads of state and government agreed to first invite Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary to negotiations on joining NATO. At the same time, NATO also opened up the prospect of future membership for other countries.
The accession protocols with Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary were signed at the NATO Council meeting on December 16, 1997 in Brussels. In these protocols, the future members also assured that they would fulfill the obligations of the NATO treaty, participate in joint defense planning, join the NATO military structure and not hinder the accession of other countries to NATO. After the ratification of the protocols by the 16 NATO countries and the three acceding countries, the new members were formally admitted on March 12, 1999.
At the NATO summit in Prague in November 2002, Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, the Slovak Republic and Slovenia were invited to negotiations on joining NATO. The accession treaties were signed by NATO on March 26, 2003 and later ratified by the NATO states and the candidate countries. The formal admission of the seven new members took place on March 29, 2004 in Washington and became effective on April 2, 2004.
At the NATO summit in Bucharest (Romania) in April 2008, Albania and Croatia were invited to join NATO in 2009 12. 2015 an invitation to Montenegro to begin accession negotiations with the alliance.
From Alliance Defense to Worldwide Use
Even after the end of the Cold War and the East-West confrontation, NATO remained committed to the collective defense of its members. Expanding the previous range of tasks, however, in its new strategic concept adopted in April 1999, it increasingly focused on conflict prevention, crisis management and military crisis response as well as the defense against terrorism, the prevention of the transfer of weapons of mass destruction and cooperation with non-alliance members. This engagement should remain limited to the Euro-Atlantic area or should be related to the treaty area and should be in accordance with international law and the principles of the UN Charter and, as a rule, be carried out with a UN mandate. In close cooperation and consultation with NATO, the European security and defense policy.
Secretaries General of NATO
|Secretaries General of NATO|
|Lord Ismay, UK||1952-1957|
|P.-H. Spaak, Belgium||1957-1961|
|D. Stikker, Netherlands||1961-1964|
|M. Brosio, Italy||1964-1971|
|J. Luns, Netherlands||1971-1984|
|Lord Carrington, UK||1984-1988|
|M. Wörner, FRG||1988-1994|
|W. Claes, Belgium||1994-1995|
|J. Solana Madariaga, Spain||1995-1999|
|G. Robertson, UK||1999-2003|
|J. de Hoop Scheffer, Netherlands||2004-2009|
|AF Rasmussen, Denmark||2009-2014|
|J. Stoltenberg, Norway||since October 1, 2014|