Arizona, United States

Arizona, United States

Country USA
Capital city Phoenix
Area 295,254 km²
Population 6,828,065 (2015) people (2015)
Governor Doug Ducey
Time zone UTC-7
ZIP code AZ
ISO 3166-2 US-AZ
Official site

The Grand Canyon.

Arizona (in English and Spanish: Arizona) is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. Area 295,234 km² (3% of US territory, 6th largest), of which 294,295 km² is land and 939 km² is water (0.32%). Population on January 1, 2018 7,171,646 people (2.19% of the US population, 15th place). Capital and largest city Phoenix.


In 1539, the Spanish Franciscan friar Marcos de Niza discovered parts of the state and several indigenous tribes inhabiting it. From 1687 until his death in 1711, the Catholic priest Eusevio Kino discovered and explored large areas of Arizona and contributed to the Christianization of the native population and the annexation of these lands to Spanish possessions in North America. President Lincoln chose the name by mistake from the local name Arizuma. It is the forty-eighth state and the last of the continental states to be admitted to the union, founded as a state on February 14, 1912. It was previously part of Alta California (Spanish: Alta California) in New Spain. It was then part of independent Mexico and later joined by the US afterThe Mexican-American War. The southernmost part of the state was annexed in 1853 by the Gadsden Purchase.


Arizona borders the states of California to the west, Nevada to the northwest, Utah to the north and New Mexico to the east, and to the south with the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California, and the border with Mexico is 626 km long.

The topography of the state is mostly mountainous. About 60% of the territory (the central and northern parts) is occupied by the Colorado Plateau, above which rise isolated mountain ranges, and the rivers flowing through it are deeply dug into canyons. The state’s most famous landmark is the Grand Canyon, which was formed along the course of the Colorado River over millions of years. The canyon is about 447 km long and 6 to 29 km wide. About 20 km north of the city of Flagstaff rises Mount Humphreys 12633 f, 3851 m the highest point of Arizona. In the eastern part, in the White Mountain, Mount Baldy 11403 f, 3476 m rises, and in the extreme southeast corner – Mount Chirisahua 9798 f, 2986 m. In the southwestern part stretches the eastern sector of the desertMojave and here in the extreme southwestern corner, in the bed of the Colorado River, is the minimum elevation of the state – 23 m above sea level.

Through the northern part of the state and along its northwestern and western borders flows the Colorado River with part of its middle and lower reaches. Its main tributaries are: left – Little Colorado (with its tributaries Carrizo Wash, Zuni, Puerco, Pueblo Colorado, Clare Creek, Oraibi Wash, Dinebito Wash, Moenkopi Wash), Cataract Creek, Bill Williams (with Big Sandy and Santa Maria) and Hila (with its tributaries San Francisco, San Simon Creek, San Pedro, Santa Cruz Wash, Black River with Verde, Centenia Wash); right – Kanab Creek and Virgin. Two large dams were built on the Colorado River, “Powell” (on the border with Utah) and “Mead” (on the border with Nevada).

Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate – very hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona has much milder summer temperatures and significant winter snowfall. This is due to the fact, in the northern part there are mountains (for example: Mount San Francisco), forests with pines, firs and spruces, the Colorado Plateau, as well as large and deep canyons. There are winter resorts in the Flagstaff, Alpine, and Tucson regions.

Arizona is one of two states (the other being Hawaii) that does not use daylight saving time. This is due to the high temperature in the state and the resulting reluctance of people to have a longer day in summer. An exception is the semi -autonomous territory of the Navajo tribe, part of which is northeastern Arizona (not to be confused with Navajo County).


Sections of 6 interstate highways and 10 interstate highways pass through the state in whole or in part:

  • Interstate Highway – 178.4 miles (287.0 km), in the southwest part, from west to east;
  • Interstate highway – 392.0 miles (630.9 km), in the southern part, from west to east, incl. through the capital city of Phoenix;
  • Interstate Highway – 29.4 miles (47.4 km), in the extreme northwest corner of the state;
  • Interstate Highway – 145.8 miles (234.6 km), south to north, between the cities of Phoenix and Flagstaff;
  • Interstate Highway – 63.4 miles (102.1 km), in the southern part, between the cities of Nogales and Tucson;
  • Interstate Highway – 359.1 miles (577.9 km), in the northern part, from west to east.
  • Interstate – 402.0 miles (646.9 km), in the central part, from west to east, incl. through the capital city of Phoenix;
  • Interstate Highway – 4.0 miles (6.4 km), in the northeast corner of the state;
  • Interstate Highway – 126.0 miles (202.7 km), on the east;
  • Interstate Highway – 137.8 miles (221.7 km), from the city of Flagstaff north to the Utah border;
  • Interstate Highway – 200.1 miles (322.1 km), in the northwest;
  • Interstate Highway – 122.0 miles (196.3 km), in the southwest part;
  • Interstate Highway – 159.0 miles (255.8 km), in the northeast;
  • Interstate Highway – 23.2 miles (37.4 km), in the northeast;
  • Interstate Highway – 292.0 miles (469.8 km), in the northeastern part, incl. through the city of Flagstaff;
  • Interstate Highway – 491.1 miles (790.3 km), in the eastern part, from south to north.


  • Apache Junction
  • Bisbee
  • Bullhead
  • Gilbert
  • Glendale
  • goodyear (city)
  • Douglas
  • Casa Grande
  • Kingman
  • Lake Havasu City
  • Meisa
  • Nogales
  • Peoria
  • San Luis
  • Sierra Vista
  • Tucson
  • Phoenix
  • Chandler
  • Yuma

Administrative division


According to Countryaah, the state of Arizona is divided into 15 counties:

  • Coconino County has the largest area of ​​48,332 km², and Santa Cruz County has the smallest area of ​​3,206 km²;
  • The most populous is Maricopa County at 4,307,033 and the least populous is Greenlee County at 9,455;
  • Maricopa County has the highest population density at 180.29 people/km², and La Paz County has the lowest density at 1.76 people/km².
Counties in the state of Arizona
District Area, km²
(place in state)
% of state area
Population (2017)
(place in state)
% of state population
Density, people/km² Administrative
Established Formed by:
01. Apache 29,054, (3), 9.84 71,606, (10), 1.00 2.46 St. John’s February 24, 1879 Yavapai County
02. Graham 12,020, (12), 4.07 37,466, (13), 0.52 3.12 Safford March 10, 1881 Apache and Pima counties
03. Greenlee 4786, (14), 1.62 9455, (15), 0.13 1.98 Clifton March 10, 1909 Graham County
04. Coconino 48 332, (1), 16.37 140,776, (7), 1.96 2.91 Flagstaff February 18, 1891 Yavapai County
05. Kochis 16 107, (8), 5.46 124,756, (8), 1.74 7.75 Bisbee February 1, 1881 Pima County
06. La Paz 11,691, (13), 3.96 20,601, (14), 0.29 1.76 Parker January 1, 1983 Yuma County
07. Maricopa 23,890, (4), 8.09 4,307,033, (1), 60.06 180.29 Phoenix February 4, 1871 Pima and Yavapai Counties
08. Mojave 34,864, (2), 11.81 207,200, (6), 2.89 5.94 Kingman November 9, 1864 Indian territories
09. Navajo 22,796, (6), 7.72 108,956, (9), 1.52 4.78 Holbrook March 21, 1895 Apache County
10. Pima 23,799, (5), 8.06 1,022,769, (2), 14.26 42.98 Tucson November 9, 1864 Indian territories
11. Pinal 13,919, (10), 4.71 430 237, (3), 6.00 30.91 Florence February 1, 1875 Maricopa and Pima counties
12. Santa Cruz 3206, (15), 1.09 46,212, (12), 0.64 14.41 Nogales March 15, 1899 Cochise and Pima counties
13. Hilla 12,419, (11), 4.21 53,501, (11), 0.75 4.31 Globe February 8, 1881 Maricopa and Pinal counties
15. Yuma 14,294, (9), 4.84 207,534, (5), 2.89 14.52 Yuma November 9, 1864 Indian territories
16. Yavapai 21 051, (7), 7.13 228 168, (4), 3.18 10.84 The Prescott November 9, 1864 Indian territories
Arizona 295 234, (6), 3.00 7 171 646, (15), 2.19 24,29 Phoenix 14 February 1912 (48)


Country USA
State Arizona
District Maricopa
Area 1334 km²
Highness height 331 mm
Population 1,445,632 people (2010)
1084 people/km²
Mayor Thelda Williams
Founding 1867
First mention 1867
ZIP code 85001 – 85099
Telephone code 623, 480, 602, 520
Time zone UTC-7
Official site

Phoenix (in English: Phoenix, translated as ” phoenix “) is the capital of the American state of Arizona. Phoenix is ​​also the county seat of Maricopa County. The population of Phoenix as of 2010 was 1,445,632, making it the fifth most populous city in the United States. Adjacent to Phoenix to the east is the city of Scottsdale. 188 km southeast of Phoenix is ​​the second largest city in the state, Tucson. Phoenix is ​​located northeast of the Sonoran Desert, the climate is hot desert. One of the most famous art museums in the United States is located in Phoenix. It is also home to one of the largest zoos in the United States.


Phoenix in the 1940s.

For more than 2,000 years, the Hohokam people inhabited the lands now occupied by Phoenix. The Hohokam created irrigation canals totaling about 215 km, making the desert land arable. These canals later became modern more complex canals. Periods of drought and severe flooding between 1300 and 1450 are believed to have forced the Hohokam civilization to abandon the area.

After the departure of the Hohokam, Pima, Papago, Maricopa, Yavapai, and Apache groups began to use the area. They grow a variety of local crops and hunt wild animals.

When the Mexican-American War ended in 1848, Mexico ceded its northern territories to the United States. The lands around Phoenix became part of the New Mexico Territory. In 1863, the mining town of Wickenburg became the first to be established in the area northwest of present-day Phoenix.

The story of Phoenix begins with Jack Swilling, a Confederate veteran of the Civil War. In 1867, while traveling through the Salt River Valley, he saw potential for agriculture. He formed a small society in the same year about 6 kilometers east of the present city. Lord Darrell Dupa, one of the original settlers in Swilling’s group, suggested the name Phoenix (“Phoenix”) as it described a city that had risen from the remains of a former civilization. The town was officially incorporated on May 4, 1868, and the first post office was established the following month.

The town grew in the 1870s, and President Ulysses Grant deeded land for the Phoenix Estate on April 10, 1874. By 1875, the town had a telegraph office, 16 taverns, and 4 ballrooms. By 1880, the city’s population had grown to 2,453.

In the 1880s, a railroad ran through the city’s valley, the first of several key factors that changed Phoenix’s economy. The city became a center of trade, and its produce reached both the west and east coasts.

On February 14, 1912, Phoenix became the state capital when Arizona was admitted to the Union as the 48th state. This further accelerated Phoenix’s growth, with a population of 29,053 eight years later. In 1920, his first skyscraper was built in Phoenix. By the 1930s, the population of Phoenix had doubled, and the city, along with the surrounding area, began to be called “The Valley of the Sun” (in English: The Valley of the Sun) in order to promote the area to tourists.

During World War II, the city’s economy changed and it became a distribution center and began producing war supplies. At the time, the city had three military airfields and two pilot training camps.

After the war ended, many of the men who received their military training in Arizona returned with their families. Learning of this large and untapped source of labor, many large industries began to relocate their facilities to the area. In 1948, Motorola chose Phoenix as a location to research and develop its military electronics. Seeing the same advantages as Motorola, other technology companies such as Intel and McDonnell Douglas also moved to the valley and began manufacturing.

By 1950, the city’s population was already 105,000, with thousands more inhabiting the surrounding villages. The huge growth in the postwar years was further accelerated by the introduction of air conditioning, which allowed homes and businesses to cope with the city’s extreme heat during the long summers. In 1959 alone, there was more construction in Phoenix than in the period from 1914 to 1946. As with other growing American cities, Phoenix’s growth was not uniform—it occurred primarily in the northern parts of the city that were being populated almost entirely by white people.

In the 1960s, many more buildings were built, the city grew, the population grew, and more companies took advantage of the city’s workforce. In 1968, President Lyndon Johnson approved the Central Arizona Project, which provided future water supplies for Phoenix, Tucson and the agricultural corridor between them. The following year, Pope Paul VI established the Diocese of Phoenix. In the 1970s, the city center saw a revival and high levels of construction. In 1972, the Chase Tower skyscraper was built, which is also the tallest building in Arizona. In 1985, the Palo Verde NPP began operating near Phoenix, which is America’s largest nuclear power plant.

Phoenix has seen high growth rates in recent years and is the second fastest growing metropolitan area in the US after Las Vegas. In 2008, Phoenix was hit hard by the US subprime crisis, and by 2009 the median home price was $150,000, down from $262,000 in 2007.


Satellite photo of Phoenix, 2002.

Phoenix is ​​located in the southwestern part of the USA, in the south-central part of Arizona, halfway between Tucson and Flagstaff. It is located 290 km north of the Mexican border. The metropolitan area is known as the “Valley of the Sun”. It is located at an average altitude of 331 m above sea level in the northern outskirts of the Sonoran desert.

Aside from the mountains surrounding the city, Phoenix’s topography is generally flat. The area of ​​the city is 1341 km 2, of which 0.6 km 2 is water. Although it is the fifth most populous city in the United States, its large area gives it a relatively low population density. Phoenix does not use daylight saving time, nor does most of Arizona.


Phoenix is ​​the sixth most populous city in the United States as of 2010 with a population of 1,445,632. This also makes it the most populous US state capital. According to 2016 population estimates, Phoenix ranks as the fifth most populous city in the United States with 1,615,017 people, surpassing Philadelphia.

[ Hide ]Racial composition 1940 1970 1990 2010
White (including White Latinos) 92.3% 93.3% 81.7% 65.9%
Negroes 6.5% 4.8% 5.2% 6.5%
Latinos 12.7% 20.0% 40.8%
Asians 0.8% 0.5% 1.7% 3.2%
White (no white Latinos) 81.3% 71.8% 46.5%
Population by years
1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930
240 1708 3152 5544 11,314 29,053 48 118
1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
65,414 106,818 439 170 581 572 789 704 983 403 1,321,045

As of 2010, 20.6% of the city’s population was born elsewhere. 63.5% of the population speak only English and 30.6% speak Spanish at home. The most common ethnic origins were: Mexican (35.9%), German (15.3%), Irish (10.3%), English (9.4%), African (9.4%), Italian (4.5%), French (2.7%), Polish (2.5%), Indian (2.2%) and Scottish (2%).

According to data from 2014, about 66% of the population professes Christianity, while 26% are non-believers. About 7% are deducted for other religions. Among Christians, Catholicism and Evangelicalism have the most followers.

Panorama of Phoenix during the day.


Phoenix has a hot desert climate that is typical of the Sonoran Desert. characterized by long and very hot summers and warm winters. Phoenix is ​​one of the sunniest cities in the world, receiving an average of 3,872 hours of sunlight per year. On the other hand, rainfall is scarce – 204 m on average per year. The driest month is June and the wettest is July.

Months Jan. Feb. March Apr. May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Annually
Absolute maximum temperatures (°C) 31 33 38 41 46 50 49 47 47 42 36 31 50
Average maximum temperatures (°C) 19.6 21.5 24.9 29.6 34.9 39.9 41.2 40.2 37.7 31.4 24.2 18.9 30.3
Average temperatures (°C) 13.6 15.4 18.4 22.6 27.8 32.7 34.9 34.2 31.3 24.8 17.8 13 23.9
Average minimum temperatures (°C) 7.6 9.3 11.9 15.7 20.8 25.4 28.6 28.2 24.9 18.2 11.5 7.1 17.4
Absolute minimum temperatures (°C) -9 −4 −4 2 4 9 17 14 8 1 -3 -6 -9
Average monthly rainfall (mm) 23.1 23.4 25.1 7.1 2.8 0.5 26.7 25.4 16.3 14.7 16.5 22.4 204
Average amount of sunshine hours 256.0 257.2 318.4 353.6 401.0 407.8 378.5 360.8 328.6 308.9 256.0 244.8 3872


A cotton plantation on the outskirts of Phoenix.

Office building in the city center.

In the beginning, the economy of Phoenix was mainly focused on agriculture and natural resources. With the establishment of the Southern Pacific Railroad by 1926 and the construction of an airport, the city became more accessible. The Great Depression affected it, but Phoenix had a diverse economy and by 1934 was already recovering. After the end of World War II, the economy and construction in the valley began to develop at a very rapid pace. With the onset of the financial crisis in 2007-2010, construction in Phoenix came to a halt and real estate prices collapsed.

The city’s top-grossing industries are (in descending order): real estate, financial services, manufacturing, retail, and health care. If management were a private industry, it would rank third on the list. The city is susceptible to redevelopment in times of economic prosperity. As of January 2016, 10.5% of the city’s workforce is in the civil service. The unemployment rate is 4.6%. There is a significant military presence around Phoenix.

Famous people

Born in Phoenix

  • Bella twins, professional wrestlers
  • Chester Bennington (1976 – 2017), lead singer of Linkin Park
  • Alektra Blue (b. 1983), pornographic actress
  • Barry Goldwater (1909 – 1998), politician
  • Sarah Dunn (b. 1969), novelist and screenwriter
  • Chelsea Kane (b. 1988), actress and singer
  • Holly Michaels (b. 1990), pornographic actress
  • Tiffany Mason (b. 1982), pornographic actress
  • Steven Smith (b. 1958), engineer and astronaut
  • Liz Taylor (b. 1990), pornographic actress
  • Opal Tometti (b. 1984), socialite
  • George Vollmer (b. 1934), Formula One driver
  • Eddie Cheever (b. 1958), Formula One driver

Died in Phoenix

  • Charles Boyer (1897 – 1978), French actor
  • Bill Dana (1930 – 2014), aviator
  • Milton Erickson (1901 – 1980), psychiatrist
  • Frank Lloyd Wright (1867 – 1959), architect and interior designer

Twin Cities

  • Chengdu, China

Arizona, United States

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